How to Build CHD@ZJU

CHD related Articles were retrieved from Pubmed, by entering keywords "coronary heart disease" and constrict the publish date from 2000/1/1 to now (2013/1/23). As a result, totally 115898 articles were found and their abstracts were downloaded for text mining. Since some articles didn't contain abstracts, only 88396 abstracts remained.

The text-mining process to get CHD related genes could be divided in to 5 following steps:

  • 1) Extracting all keywords from abstracts and ignoring those keywords start with numbers. 101402 keywords were extracted.

  • 2) Input these keywords into Gene library in ArrayTrack and find possible related genes. 4674 genes were then found.

  • 3) Put these 4674 genes again into pubmed abstracts to find related aticles. Only genes which offical name or there keyword description (such as prolactin for gene PRL) could be found in the abstract would be remained. As a result, 1247 genes were remained.

  • 4) Manually examined on the 1247 genes to validate it was acutally related to CHD. Some genes would be filtered if it represents other meanings (such as gene CAD, Entrez ID:790, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, is mostly meant coronary arterial disease in articles). 681 genes were then validated with at least one reference.

  • 5) All genes was compared with 1078 CHD genes in RGD database, and 370 genes were overlapped. These 370 genes were labels as "RGD_Supported" and the other 293 genes were labels as "REFERED". All 663 genes had supported references in CHD@ZJU which were examined by step 4.
  • How To contact Us

    Collaboration Information: Prof. Xiaohui Fan (

    Website using assistance : Leihong Wu (

    Basic Information

    Gene Name: LTA

    Description: "lymphotoxin alpha (TNF superfamily, member 1)"

    Entrez Gene ID: 4049

    SwissProt Acc Number: P01374

    RefSeq: NM_000595

    It was suspected to be CHD related:

    ..Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine and is found to be expressed in atherosclerotic lesions...

    From PMID: 18504081, in Journal Exp Gerontol , 2008


    There were 81 potential papers with LTA and CHD.

    24043374 "Higher body weight patients on clopidogrel maintenance therapy have lower active metabolite concentrations, lower levels of platelet inhibition, and higher rates of poor responders than low body weight patients."Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysisMore Details
    23046593 Risk of brain injury during diagnostic coronary angiography: comparison between right and left radial approach.International journal of cardiologyMore Details
    24102318 Combination of high on-treatment platelet aggregation and low deaggregation better predicts long-term cardiovascular events in PCI patients under dual antiplatelet therapy.PlateletsMore Details
    23610570 Prevalence of and risk factors for aspirin resistance in elderly patients with coronary artery disease.Journal of geriatric cardiology : JGCMore Details
    22075408 Differential impact of cytochrome 2C9 allelic variants on clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition determined by five different platelet function tests.International journal of cardiologyMore Details
    23549485 Soluble P-selectin level correlates with acetylsalicylic acid but not with clopidogrel response in patients with stable coronary artery disease after a percutaneous coronary intervention.Coronary artery diseaseMore Details
    23143668 Impact of renal function on clopidogrel-induced antiplatelet effects in coronary artery disease patients without diabetes mellitus.Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysisMore Details
    23198725 Vascular and platelet responses to aspirin in patients with coronary artery disease.European journal of clinical investigationMore Details
    23747759 "Prasugrel 5 mg in the very elderly attenuates platelet inhibition but maintains noninferiority to prasugrel 10 mg in nonelderly patients: the GENERATIONS trial, a pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic study in stable coronary artery disease patients."Journal of the American College of CardiologyMore Details
    23830212 Impact of the proton pump inhibitors and CYP2C19*2 polymorphism on platelet response to clopidogrel as assessed by four platelet function assays.Thrombosis researchMore Details
    22385219 Inhibition of platelet aggregation by prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) in diabetic patients during therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin.PlateletsMore Details
    22372531 A prospective randomized trial comparing the recovery of platelet function after loading dose administration of prasugrel or clopidogrel.PlateletsMore Details
    22738689 Peripheral blood gene expression profile of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease in patients of different ethnicity in Malaysia.Journal of cardiologyMore Details
    23083774 Reduction in platelet reactivity with prasugrel 5 mg in low-body-weight patients is noninferior to prasugrel 10 mg in higher-body-weight patients: results from the FEATHER trial.Journal of the American College of CardiologyMore Details
    22797934 Relation between clopidogrel active metabolite levels and different platelet aggregation methods in patients receiving clopidogrel and aspirin.Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysisMore Details
    22782352 Effects of pioglitazone on platelet P2Y12-mediated signalling in clopidogrel-treated patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.Thrombosis and haemostasisMore Details
    21971053 Genome-wide association study of coronary artery disease in the Japanese.European journal of human genetics : EJHGMore Details
    22228204 The influence of CYP2C19*2 and *17 on on-treatment platelet reactivity and bleeding events in patients undergoing elective coronary stenting.Pharmacogenetics and genomicsMore Details
    23138460 Circulating and platelet-derived microparticles in human blood enhance thrombosis on atherosclerotic plaques.Thrombosis and haemostasisMore Details
    22310064 "Polymorphisms of LTA, LGALS2, and PSMA6 genes and coronary atherosclerosis: a pathological study of 1503 consecutive autopsy cases."AtherosclerosisMore Details
    22561563 [Prevalence of laboratory aspirin resistance in 431 old patients].Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University.More Details
    22646492 Evaluation of the role of the new INNOVANCE PFA P2Y test cartridge in detection of clopidogrel resistance.PlateletsMore Details
    21821226 Clinical and prognostic implications of the initial response to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndrome.The American journal of cardiologyMore Details
    22100609 Tumor necrosis factor -308 and lymphotoxin +252 polymorphisms in Mexican children with Kawasaki disease and coronary aneurysms.Archives of medical researchMore Details
    21621250 The influencing factors for clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition are assay-dependent.Thrombosis researchMore Details
    21799401 Ability of the INNOVANCE PFA P2Y system to detect clopidogrel-induced ADP receptor blockade in preangiocath individuals.Blood coagulation & fibrinolysis : an international journal in haemostasis andMore Details
    21136023 24-hour time-dependent aspirin efficacy in patients with stable coronary artery disease.Thrombosis and haemostasisMore Details
    21192314 Light transmittance aggregometry induced by different concentrations of adenosine diphosphate to monitor clopidogrel therapy: a methodological study.Therapeutic drug monitoringMore Details
    21628721 Variability in on-treatment platelet reactivity explained by CYP2C19*2 genotype is modest in clopidogrel pretreated patients undergoing coronary stenting.Heart (British Cardiac Society)More Details
    21591982 Platelet response to aspirin and clopidogrel in patients with peripheral atherosclerosis.PlateletsMore Details
    22216278 Large scale association analysis identifies three susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease.PloS oneMore Details
    20685402 The flavonoids luteolin and quercetagetin inhibit lipoteichoic acid actions on H9c2 cardiomyocytes.International immunopharmacologyMore Details
    20890076 Determination of the prevalence of aspirin and clopidogrel resistances in patients with coronary artery disease by using various platelet-function tests.The Korean journal of laboratory medicineMore Details
    19520678 Tailored medical and interventional therapy against recurrent stent thrombosis after drug-eluting stenting.Clinical and applied thrombosis/hemostasis : official journal of theMore Details
    20040042 Which platelet function test is suitable to monitor clopidogrel responsiveness? A pharmacokinetic analysis on the active metabolite of clopidogrel.Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTHMore Details
    20352155 A comparison of platelet function tests and thromboxane metabolites to evaluate aspirin response in healthy individuals and patients with coronary artery disease.Thrombosis and haemostasisMore Details
    19365711 Association of LT-alpha Ala252Gly gene polymorphism and the genetic predisposition of coronary heart disease in Chinese.Molecular biology reportsMore Details
    19817997 The effect of elinogrel on high platelet reactivity during dual antiplatelet therapy and the relation to CYP2C19*2 genotype: first experience in patients.Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTHMore Details
    19687016 Calcium-channel blockers decrease clopidogrel-mediated platelet inhibition.Heart (British Cardiac Society)More Details
    19726041 "Lack of association between lymphotoxin-alpha, galectin-2 polymorphisms and coronary artery disease: a meta-analysis."AtherosclerosisMore Details
    20458439 Comparison of methods for monitoring residual platelet reactivity after clopidogrel by point-of-care tests on whole blood in high-risk patients.Thrombosis and haemostasisMore Details
    20153859 Variability of residual platelet function despite clopidogrel treatment in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease.AtherosclerosisMore Details
    19250657 "Evaluation of the platelet count drop method for assessment of platelet function in comparison with ""gold standard"" light transmission aggregometry."Thrombosis researchMore Details
    19658002 Evaluation of aspirin response by Multiplate whole blood aggregometry and light transmission aggregometry.PlateletsMore Details
    19840560 Prevalence of unresponsiveness to aspirin and/or clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary heart disease.The American journal of cardiologyMore Details
    19318928 Considerable variability in platelet activity among patients with coronary artery disease in response to an increased maintenance dose of clopidogrel.Coronary artery diseaseMore Details
    19041120 Impact of clopidogrel resistance on thrombotic events after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stent.Thrombosis researchMore Details
    19264241 Platelet reactivity after clopidogrel treatment assessed with point-of-care analysis and early drug-eluting stent thrombosis.Journal of the American College of CardiologyMore Details
    19461090 Assessment of platelet function on whole blood by multiple electrode aggregometry in high-risk patients with coronary artery disease receiving antiplatelet therapy.American journal of clinical pathologyMore Details
    19689661 "Week-long high-maintenance dose clopidogrel regimen achieves better platelet aggregation inhibition than a standard loading dose before percutaneous coronary intervention: results of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial."Journal of interventional cardiologyMore Details
    18636229 Effects of rosuvastatin on platelet inhibition by clopidogrel in cardiovascular patients.Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysisMore Details
    18384488 Lymphotoxin alpha LTA+496C allele is a risk factor for periodontitis in patients with coronary artery disease.Tissue antigensMore Details
    18032375 Low complement C4B gene copy number predicts short-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction.International immunologyMore Details
    18704761 Molecular genetics of myocardial infarction.Genomic medicineMore Details
    18718422 Role of reticulated platelets and platelet size heterogeneity on platelet activity after dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel in patients with stable coronary artery disease.Journal of the American College of CardiologyMore Details
    18504081 Lymphotoxin-alpha C804A polymorphism is a risk factor for stroke. The PROSPER study.Experimental gerontologyMore Details
    18499236 Aspirin response evaluated by the VerifyNow Aspirin System and light transmission aggregometry.Thrombosis researchMore Details
    17640627 Lymphotoxin-alpha gene 252A>G and metabolic syndrome features in Korean men with coronary artery disease.Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistryMore Details
    17700210 Genetic polymorphism in the pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A associated with acute myocardial infarction.Coronary artery diseaseMore Details
    17723123 Different methodologies for evaluating the effect of clopidogrel on platelet function in high-risk coronary artery disease patients.Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTHMore Details
    17040205 "Effects of lymphotoxin-alpha gene and galectin-2 gene polymorphisms on inflammatory biomarkers, cellular adhesion molecules and risk of coronary heart disease.""Clinical science (London, England : 1979)"More Details
    17493152 Lack of association between LTA and LGALS2 polymorphisms and myocardial infarction in Japanese and Korean populations.Tissue antigensMore Details
    17569678 A comparison of six major platelet function tests to determine the prevalence of aspirin resistance in patients with stable coronary artery disease.European heart journalMore Details
    17580282 Comparison of different methods to evaluate the effect of aspirin on platelet function in high-risk patients with ischemic heart disease receiving dual antiplatelet treatment.American journal of clinical pathologyMore Details
    17239165 Normalization of platelet reactivity in clopidogrel-treated subjects.Journal of thrombosis and haemostasis : JTHMore Details
    18190265 Polymorphisms in the gene for lymphotoxin-alpha predispose to chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy.The Journal of infectious diseasesMore Details
    17848625 The effect of aspirin dosing on platelet function in diabetic and nondiabetic patients: an analysis from the aspirin-induced platelet effect (ASPECT) study.DiabetesMore Details
    17517687 Association of variants in the BAT1-NFKBIL1-LTA genomic region with protection against myocardial infarction in Europeans.Human molecular geneticsMore Details
    16806409 Delayed thrombin-induced platelet-fibrin clot generation by clopidogrel: a new dose-related effect demonstrated by thrombelastography in patients undergoing coronary artery stenting.Thrombosis researchMore Details
    16987874 Genetic susceptibility to myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease.Human molecular geneticsMore Details
    16839190 "Lymphotoxin-alpha gene and risk of myocardial infarction in 6,928 cases and 2,712 controls in the ISIS case-control study."PLoS geneticsMore Details
    16874159 A functional polymorphism in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene is associated with carotid artery wall thickness: the Diabetes Heart Study.European journal of cardiovascular prevention and rehabilitation : officialMore Details
    15973460 Association of the lymphotoxin-alpha gene Thr26Asn polymorphism with severity of coronary atherosclerosis.Genes and immunityMore Details
    16286165 Platelet reactivity in patients and recurrent events post-stenting: results of the PREPARE POST-STENTING Study.Journal of the American College of CardiologyMore Details
    16256872 Overestimation of platelet aspirin resistance detection by thrombelastograph platelet mapping and validation by conventional aggregometry using arachidonic acid stimulation.Journal of the American College of CardiologyMore Details
    16043646 Mechanisms of cardiac depression caused by lipoteichoic acids from Staphylococcus aureus in isolated rat hearts.CirculationMore Details
    15789173 Comparative pharmacodynamic evaluation of eptifibatide and abciximab in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes: the TAM2 study.Journal of thrombosis and thrombolysisMore Details
    15129282 Functional variation in LGALS2 confers risk of myocardial infarction and regulates lymphotoxin-alpha secretion in vitro.NatureMore Details
    15175864 Lack of association of polymorphisms of the lymphotoxin alpha gene with myocardial infarction in Japanese."Journal of molecular medicine (Berlin, Germany)"More Details
    12426569 Functional SNPs in the lymphotoxin-alpha gene that are associated with susceptibility to myocardial infarction.Nature geneticsMore Details
    12124955 Platelet inhibition with tirofiban early during percutaneous coronary intervention: dosing revisited.Catheterization and cardiovascular interventions : official journal of theMore Details

    NOTEs: These result is mostly from TEXT-MINING and there might have mismatches.

    PPI interactions

    There were totally 10 unique genes interacted with LTA. Show PPI network

    Gene nameInteraction typereference PMIDCHD relation
    LTB Reconstituted Complex9235946|9317127|7995952 No
    UMOD Reconstituted Complex8323280 No
    LTA in vivo11164894,9235946 CHD related
    TNFRSF1A Co-crystal Structure8387891|8387891 CHD related
    CLSPN Affinity Capture-Western18922873 No
    TUBA4A in vivo15129282 No
    TNFRSF1B in vivo9552007,8123048,2160731 CHD related
    LTBR in vivo8171323 No
    TNFRSF14 in vitro9153189,9462508 CHD related
    LGALS2 in vitro;in vivo15129282 CHD related

    Involved FDA drugs

    StatusDrubBank IDNameIndicationATC Code
    approvedDB00005Etanercept"For treatment of severe active rheumatoid arthritis in adults, severe juvenile idiopathic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and severe plaque psoriasis."L04AB01