How to Build CHD@ZJU

CHD related Articles were retrieved from Pubmed, by entering keywords "coronary heart disease" and constrict the publish date from 2000/1/1 to now (2013/1/23). As a result, totally 115898 articles were found and their abstracts were downloaded for text mining. Since some articles didn't contain abstracts, only 88396 abstracts remained.

The text-mining process to get CHD related genes could be divided in to 5 following steps:

  • 1) Extracting all keywords from abstracts and ignoring those keywords start with numbers. 101402 keywords were extracted.

  • 2) Input these keywords into Gene library in ArrayTrack and find possible related genes. 4674 genes were then found.

  • 3) Put these 4674 genes again into pubmed abstracts to find related aticles. Only genes which offical name or there keyword description (such as prolactin for gene PRL) could be found in the abstract would be remained. As a result, 1247 genes were remained.

  • 4) Manually examined on the 1247 genes to validate it was acutally related to CHD. Some genes would be filtered if it represents other meanings (such as gene CAD, Entrez ID:790, carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 2, is mostly meant coronary arterial disease in articles). 681 genes were then validated with at least one reference.

  • 5) All genes was compared with 1078 CHD genes in RGD database, and 370 genes were overlapped. These 370 genes were labels as "RGD_Supported" and the other 293 genes were labels as "REFERED". All 663 genes had supported references in CHD@ZJU which were examined by step 4.
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    Collaboration Information: Prof. Xiaohui Fan (

    Website using assistance : Leihong Wu (

    Basic Information

    Gene Name: PTGS1

    Description: prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase)

    Entrez Gene ID: 5742

    SwissProt Acc Number: P23219

    RefSeq: NM_000962

    It was suspected to be CHD related:

    ..A common promoter variant of the gene encoding cyclooxygenase-1 (PTGS1) is related to decreased incidence of myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery disease...

    From PMID: 21256536, in Journal Thromb Res. , 2011


    There were 4 potential papers with PTGS1 and CHD.

    21742104 Polymorphisms associated with in vitro aspirin resistance are not associated with clinical outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease who report regular aspirin use.American heart journalMore Details
    20538124 Genetic polymorphisms and the cardiovascular risk of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.The American journal of cardiologyMore Details
    19046748 "Variation in eicosanoid genes, non-fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke."AtherosclerosisMore Details
    17495879 Cyclooxygenase polymorphisms and risk of cardiovascular events: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.Clinical pharmacology and therapeuticsMore Details

    NOTEs: These result is mostly from TEXT-MINING and there might have mismatches.

    PPI interactions

    There were totally 2 unique genes interacted with PTGS1. Show PPI network

    Gene nameInteraction typereference PMIDCHD relation
    NUCB1 Two-hybrid8643612|8643612 No
    PTGS1 in vitro11318639 CHD related

    Involved FDA drugs

    StatusDrubBank IDNameIndicationATC Code
    approved;nutraceuticalDB00154gamma-Homolinolenic acid"For nutritional supplementation, also for treating dietary shortage or imbalance"
    approved;nutraceuticalDB00159Icosapent"EPA can be used for lowering elevated triglycerides in those who are hyperglyceridemic. In addition, EPA may play a therapeutic role in patients with cystic fibrosis by reducing disease severity and may play a similar role in type 2 diabetics in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy."C10AX06
    approvedDB00244MesalazineFor the treatment of active ulcerative proctitis.A07EC02
    approvedDB00316AcetaminophenFor temporary relief of fever and minor aches and pains.N02BE01
    approvedDB00328Indomethacin"For moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis including acute flares of chronic disease, ankylosing spondylitis, osteoarthritis, acute painful shoulder (bursitis and/or tendinitis) and acute gouty arthritis."M01AB01;C01EB03
    approvedDB00350MinoxidilFor the treatment of severe hypertension and in the topical treatment (regrowth) of androgenic alopecia in males and females and stabilisation of hair loss in patients with androgenic alopecia.C02DC01;D11AX01
    approvedDB00461NabumetoneFor acute and chronic treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.M01AX01
    approvedDB00465Ketorolac"For the short-term (~5 days) management of moderately severe acute pain that requires analgesia at the opioid level, usually in a postoperative setting."M01AB15;S01BC05
    approvedDB00469Tenoxicam"For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, backache, and pain."M01AC02
    approvedDB00500Tolmetin"For the relief of signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, including the treatment of acute flares long-term management. Also for treatment of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis."M01AB03;M02AA21
    approvedDB00554PiroxicamFor treatment of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.M01AC01;M02AA07;S01BC06
    approvedDB00573FenoprofenFor relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Also for the relief of mild to moderate pain.M01AE04
    approvedDB00586DiclofenacFor the acute and chronic treatment of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.M01AB05;M02AA15;S01BC03;D11AX18
    approvedDB00605Sulindac"For acute or long-term use in the relief of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, acute painful shoulder (acute subacromial bursitis/supraspinatus tendinitis), and acute gouty arthritis."M01AB02
    approvedDB00711Diethylcarbamazine"Used for the treatment of individual patients with certain filarial diseases including tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, loiasis, and lymphatic filariasis caused by infection with <i>Wuchereria bancrofti</i>, <i>Brugia malayi</i>, or <i>Brugia timori</i>."P02CB02
    approvedDB00712Flurbiprofen"Flurbiprofen tablets are indicated for the acute or long-term symptomatic treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteorarthritis and anklosing spondylitis. It may also be used to treat pain associated with dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. bursitis, tendonitis, soft tissue trauma). Topical ophthalmic formulations may be used pre-operatively to prevent intraoperative miosis. "M01AE09;M02AA19;S01BC04
    approvedDB00749Etodolac"For acute and long-term management of signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, as well as for the management of pain."M01AB08
    approvedDB00784Mefenamic acid"For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, dysmenorrhea, and mild to moderate pain, inflammation, and fever."M01AG01
    approvedDB00788Naproxen"For the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, tendinitis, bursitis, and acute gout. Also for the relief of mild to moderate pain and the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea."G02CC02;M01AE02;M02AA12
    approvedDB00795SulfasalazineFor the treatment of Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis as a second-line agent.A07EC01
    approvedDB00812PhenylbutazoneFor the treatment of backache and ankylosing spondylitisM01AA01;M02AA01
    approvedDB00814MeloxicamFor symptomatic treatment of arthritis and osteoarthritis.M01AC06
    approvedDB00821CarprofenFor use as a pain reliever in the treatment of joint pain and post-surgical pain.
    approvedDB00861Diflunisal"For symptomatic treatment of mild to moderate pain accompanied by inflammation (e.g. musculoskeletal trauma, post-dental extraction, post-episiotomy), osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis."N02BA11
    approvedDB00870SuprofenUsed as eye drops to inhibit the miosis (pupil constriction) that may occur during ocular surgery.M01AE07
    approvedDB00936Salicyclic acid"Key additive in many skin-care products for the treatment of acne, psoriasis, callouses, corns, keratosis pilaris and warts."D11AC30;N02BA04
    approvedDB00939Meclofenamic acid"For the relief of mild to moderate pain, for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea and for the treatment of idiopathic heavy menstrual blood loss. Also for relief of the signs and symptoms of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis."M01AG04;M02AA18
    approvedDB00945Acetylsalicylic acid"For use in the temporary relief of various forms of pain, inflammation associated with various conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis), and is also used to reduce the risk of death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with a previous infarction or unstable angina pectoris."A01AD05;B01AC06;N02BA01
    approvedDB00963BromfenacFor the treatment of postoperative inflammation in patients who have undergone cataract extraction.
    approvedDB00991Oxaprozin"Used to relieve the inflammation, swelling, stiffness, and joint pain associated with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis."M01AE12
    approvedDB01009Ketoprofen"For symptomatic treatment of acute and chronic rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, primary dysmenorrhea and mild to moderate pain associated with musculotendinous trauma (sprains and strains), postoperative (including dental surgery) or postpartum pain."M01AE03;M01AE17;M02AA10
    approvedDB01014BalsalazideFor the treatment of mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis.A07EC04
    approvedDB01283LumiracoxibFor the acute and chronic treatment of the signs and symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee in adults.M01AH06
    approvedDB01397Magnesium salicylateMagnesium salicylate is a common analgesic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) used to treat mild to moderate muscular pain
    approvedDB01398Salicylate-sodiumIt is used in medicine as an analgesic and antipyretic. Sodium salicylate also acts as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)D01AE12;S01BC08;N02BA04
    approvedDB01399Salsalate"For relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis and related rheumatic disorders."N02BA06
    approvedDB01401Trisalicylate-cholineCholine magnesium trisalicylate is used to reduce pain and inflammation caused by conditions such as arthritis. This medication is also used to treat fever in adults.
    approvedDB01419AntrafenineAntrafenine is used as an anti-inflammatory and analgesic agent for the relief of mild to moderate pain.
    approvedDB01435AntipyrineAntipyrine is an analgesic often used to test effects of other drugs on liver enzymes..N02BB01;S02DA03
    approvedDB01600Tiaprofenic acid"Tiaprofenic acid is used to treat pain, especially arthritic pain."M01AE11
    experimentalDB02047"2-(1,1'-Biphenyl-4-Yl)Propanoic Acid"
    experimentalDB02110Protoporphyrin Ix Containing Co
    experimentalDB021982-Bromoacetyl Group
    experimentalDB02266Flufenamic AcidM01AG03
    experimentalDB02709ResveratrolBeing investigated for the treatment of Herpes labialis infections (cold sores).
    experimentalDB02773(3-Chloro-4-Propoxy-Phenyl)-Acetic Acid
    experimentalDB03667Acetic Acid Salicyloyl-Amino-Ester
    experimentalDB03752P-(2'-Iodo-5'-Thenoyl)Hydrotropic Acid
    experimentalDB03753Flurbiprofen Methyl Ester
    experimental;withdrawnDB03783PhenacetinUsed principally as an analgesic.N02BE03
    approvedDB04552Niflumic AcidUsed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.M02AA17;M01AX02
    experimentalDB04557Arachidonic Acid
    withdrawnDB04817DipyroneUsed in the past as a powerful painkiller and fever reducer.
    approvedDB06725Lornoxicam"For the treatment of acute mild to moderate pain, as well as pain and inflammation of the joints caused by certain types of rheumatic diseases."M01AC05
    approvedDB06802NepafenacFor the treatment of pain and inflammation associated with cataract surgery.S01BC10